4. Implementation of the JMIs
The Joint Monitoring Indicators (JMIs) are intended to link monitoring of Government, development partner and TWG activity to a set of priority targets associated with the NSDP. Through an emphasis on their joint nature they are perhaps the most important tool available for routinely incorporating the principles of results-based monitoring and mutual accountability into the development partnership. This then serves to connect the joint activities of Government and its partners to the attainment of development results. The current set of JMIs, comprising twenty targets ranging across all four pillars of the NSDP, was endorsed by the Government and development partners at the First CDCF meeting in June 2007.
During the 2007 CDCF meeting it was observed that there had been some tendency towards the use of JMIs as a conditionality or performance framework. While this may be legitimate in terms of ensuring that Government's commitments were monitored it was felt to have resulted in a weakening of the mutual nature of the JMIs, possibly reinforcing the traditional imbalance in aid relationships. The principles for maintaining the mutual characteristics of the JMIs were therefore re-emphasised and summarised as:
Overall progress has been encouraging (see Table Eleven), although the speed and depth varies across priority areas. While the priorities identified in the NSDP represent national goals, their success hinges upon the leadership and strategic management provided by Government and the partnership dynamics that enable the Government to exercise ownership over the development agenda. The Planning and Poverty Reduction TWG is therefore the strategic entry point where most discussion related to the NSDP takes place and the Ministry of Planning reported making headway in developing its Ministry of Planning Strategic Plan (MPSP) (JMI 1) that aims to strengthen capacity in the planning and monitoring function, and coordinate support from development partners. The national aid effectiveness priorities provide a second point of reference for overall NSDP management (JMI 2) and the JMI overseen by the Partnership and Harmonisation TWG reported that all targets – in data management, TWG reporting to GDCC, and introduction of H-A-R indicators - were met.
NSDP Social Sector Priorities
The Education TWG (JMI 3) reported that the net enrollment rate (NER) increased from 92.2% in school year 2006-2007 to 93.3% in 2007-2008 while the female NER increased from 91% to 93.3% in 2007-2008. The survival rate from Grade 1 to Grade 6 at the national level also increased to 52.5% in 2006-2007 (and from 48.9% to 55.4% for girls) from 49.3% a year earlier. In the health sector (JMI 4), similar progress was recorded as 188 primary midwives and 40 secondary midwives were recruited and posted to 166 health centers, 66 of which had no midwifery support previously, and salary incentives were provided. The HIV/AIDS TWG (JMI 5) reported the prevalence of HIV among the adult population was now estimated to be 0.9%. Completing an optimistic outlook in the social sectors, the Council for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) and Ministry of Planning confirmed that the Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition in Cambodia 2008-2012 (SFFSN) was endorsed by the TWG-FSN in early 2008 (JMI 6).
NSDP Economic Sector Priorities
Progress in development and implementation of the Strategy for Agriculture and Water (SAW) was realised as a Statement of Principles (SOP) was signed to guide development partners and government agencies working in the agriculture and water sectors (JMI 7). To support each of five National Programs under the SAW, a Team Management Support Group has been established under the leadership of MAFF and MOWRAM, and it is expected that this will accelerate progress towards the design of two National Programs, which have not yet been completed. Satisfactory coordination of the process has been augmented, however, by the use of data in the Cambodia ODA Database which development partners have diligently updated.
Policy on the Registration and Use Rights of Land of Indigenous People (JMI 8) was developed and endorsed by the Council for Land Policy and is now awaiting formal approval. To implement the Policy, a sub-decree detailing procedures for registration of indigenous people's communal lands has been drafted by the Council of Land Policy and is under consultation within the government and with other national stakeholders. The target to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor, i.e. 500 eligible households are settled on social land concessions and at least 10,000 hectares of suitable land are confirmed as available for SLCs was partially achieved as in excess of 1,000 households were selected for a SLC. Provisions in the sub-decree related to the granting of Economic Land Concessions (ELCs) were implemented (JMI 9), information on ELCs granted at the provincial/municipal level is available for six provinces/municipalities, and a review is being carried out for a number of ELCs with over 10,000 hectares. Progress is also being made on forest demarcation as 17 protected areas have been demarcated and mapped.
The CamCode on Responsible Fisheries (JMI 10) has been drafted and is being prepared for submission to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for final approval. It is hoped that this will resulting increased harmonisation and alignment of support once it is finalised. A similar situation applies in Mine Action, where a strategic planning framework has been strengthened (JMI 11), but the challenge will be to integrate all of these processes into a coherent, evidence based strategy which will inform the MA sector in the future. Finally, and central to the development of the private sector, there has been good cooperation between MoC, MoH, MAFF, MIME and MEF in implementing the Service Level Agreement and in agreeing on the list of prohibited and restricted goods (JMI 12). Work is underway on streamlining the list and uploading it into the ASYCUDA system but no progress was made on assessing licensing impacts on SMEs.
NSDP Infrastructure Sector Priorities
Maintenance of national roads in Cambodia has been considered an important priority and the Ministry of Public Works and Transportation has produced a number of guidelines on road maintenance (JMI 13). The challenge ahead is to ensure implementation of the guidelines while the Ministry is also establishing mechanisms to control the overload problem. Regarding rural water supply and sanitation, the Ministry of Rural Development reports making good progress in its efforts to: i) increase improved water supply services for 50% of rural population and adequate sanitation services for 30% of rural population by 2015 in CMDG target; and ii) to increase improved water supply services for 40 % of rural people and adequate sanitation services for 20 % of rural population by 2011 (JMI 14).
NSDP Governance and Cross-Sectoral Priorities
With regard to public administration reform (JMI 15), the initiative to phase out salary supplementation practices was taken forward by introducing three mechanisms: the Special Operating Agencies (SOA), Priority Mission Group (PMG), and the Merit Based Pay Incentives (MBPI). The core elements of a remuneration strategy are also in place and are being implemented. These include an annual increase of 20% in the base salary; the continuation of functional allowance (management, education, and health); the deployment of MBPI and PMG; modernization of the pension system; and the introduction of health insurance. As a step towards developing a redeployment policy, a study on best practices has recently been completed. The implementation of both remuneration strategy and redeployment policy will critically depend on the coherence of the various state institutions and the sustainability of fiscal resources.
With regard to other major reform programmes, progress in the legal and judicial sector was mixed but progress was recorded to ensure the adoption and promulgation of the Criminal Procedure Code (JMI 16). The Civil Code and Civil Procedures Code were also completed and promulgated during this period but issues of consistency between these codes and emerging legislations from other sectors remains. The Criminal Code is now at the Inter-Ministerial Meeting but the Law on the Statute of Judges & Prosecutors, the Law on the Organization and Functioning of the Court and the amendment to the Law on the Supreme Council of Magistracy all failed to significantly progress over the period. The approval of the Anti-Corruption Law (JMI 17) is expected to proceed after the passing of the Criminal Code.
The “Law on Administrative Management of Capital, Provinces, Municipalities, Districts and Khans,” was promulgated in May 2008 (JMI 18), providing the basis for reassigning a wider range of functional roles across government, and work commenced in early September 2008 on the National Program for Sub National Democratic Development. This reform is complementary to the Public Financial Management reform (JMI 19), which continued to progress satisfactorily as preparations for Platform 2 continue. The final JMI was broadly successful in its implementation as the Sub-decree on the administrative decision on domestic violence has been drafted by the Ministry of Interior and the Law on Anti Trafficking, in compliance with the UN Palermo Protocol was passed in 2007 (JMI 20). The National Action Plan to Combat Violence against Women has been prepared and now is under discussion at the Council for Ministers prior to the creation of a working group in MoI/DOLA.
Based on the text provided above, Table Eleven offers a snapshot view of all twenty JMIs and the progress recorded in their implementation. Further elaboration is provided in Annex Five.