4. Implementation of the JMIs


The Joint Monitoring Indicators (JMIs) are intended to link monitoring of Government, development partner and TWG activity to a set of priority targets associated with the NSDP. Through an emphasis on their joint nature they are perhaps the most important tool available for routinely incorporating the principles of results-based monitoring and mutual accountability into the development partnership. This then serves to connect the joint activities of Government and its partners to the attainment of development results. The current set of JMIs, comprising twenty targets ranging across all four pillars of the NSDP, was endorsed by the Government and development partners at the First CDCF meeting in June 2007.

JMI principles

During the 2007 CDCF meeting it was observed that there had been some tendency towards the use of JMIs as a conditionality or performance framework. While this may be legitimate in terms of ensuring that Government's commitments were monitored it was felt to have resulted in a weakening of the mutual nature of the JMIs, possibly reinforcing the traditional imbalance in aid relationships. The principles for maintaining the mutual characteristics of the JMIs were therefore re-emphasised and summarised as:

  1. JMls are a compact between Government and development partners based on mutual accountability principles and joint actions that are required to realise NSDP targets.

  2. Activities should be linked to the NSDP and reform programs of Government with a clearly-defined target, a responsible institution, a timeframe and resources.

Progress in implementation

Overall progress has been encouraging (see Table Eleven), although the speed and depth varies across priority areas. While the priorities identified in the NSDP represent national goals, their success hinges upon the leadership and strategic management provided by Government and the partnership dynamics that enable the Government to exercise ownership over the development agenda. The Planning and Poverty Reduction TWG is therefore the strategic entry point where most discussion related to the NSDP takes place and the Ministry of Planning reported making headway in developing its Ministry of Planning Strategic Plan (MPSP) (JMI 1) that aims to strengthen capacity in the planning and monitoring function, and coordinate support from development partners. The national aid effectiveness priorities provide a second point of reference for overall NSDP management (JMI 2) and the JMI overseen by the Partnership and Harmonisation TWG reported that all targets – in data management, TWG reporting to GDCC, and introduction of H-A-R indicators - were met.

NSDP Social Sector Priorities

The Education TWG (JMI 3) reported that the net enrollment rate (NER) increased from 92.2% in school year 2006-2007 to 93.3% in 2007-2008 while the female NER increased from 91% to 93.3% in 2007-2008. The survival rate from Grade 1 to Grade 6 at the national level also increased to 52.5% in 2006-2007 (and from 48.9% to 55.4% for girls) from 49.3% a year earlier. In the health sector (JMI 4), similar progress was recorded as 188 primary midwives and 40 secondary midwives were recruited and posted to 166 health centers, 66 of which had no midwifery support previously, and salary incentives were provided. The HIV/AIDS TWG (JMI 5) reported the prevalence of HIV among the adult population was now estimated to be 0.9%. Completing an optimistic outlook in the social sectors, the Council for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) and Ministry of Planning confirmed that the Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition in Cambodia 2008-2012 (SFFSN) was endorsed by the TWG-FSN in early 2008 (JMI 6).

NSDP Economic Sector Priorities

Progress in development and implementation of the Strategy for Agriculture and Water (SAW) was realised as a Statement of Principles (SOP) was signed to guide development partners and government agencies working in the agriculture and water sectors (JMI 7). To support each of five National Programs under the SAW, a Team Management Support Group has been established under the leadership of MAFF and MOWRAM, and it is expected that this will accelerate progress towards the design of two National Programs, which have not yet been completed. Satisfactory coordination of the process has been augmented, however, by the use of data in the Cambodia ODA Database which development partners have diligently updated.

Policy on the Registration and Use Rights of Land of Indigenous People (JMI 8) was developed and endorsed by the Council for Land Policy and is now awaiting formal approval. To implement the Policy, a sub-decree detailing procedures for registration of indigenous people's communal lands has been drafted by the Council of Land Policy and is under consultation within the government and with other national stakeholders. The target to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor, i.e. 500 eligible households are settled on social land concessions and at least 10,000 hectares of suitable land are confirmed as available for SLCs was partially achieved as in excess of 1,000 households were selected for a SLC. Provisions in the sub-decree related to the granting of Economic Land Concessions (ELCs) were implemented (JMI 9), information on ELCs granted at the provincial/municipal level is available for six provinces/municipalities, and a review is being carried out for a number of ELCs with over 10,000 hectares. Progress is also being made on forest demarcation as 17 protected areas have been demarcated and mapped.

The CamCode on Responsible Fisheries (JMI 10) has been drafted and is being prepared for submission to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for final approval. It is hoped that this will resulting increased harmonisation and alignment of support once it is finalised. A similar situation applies in Mine Action, where a strategic planning framework has been strengthened (JMI 11), but the challenge will be to integrate all of these processes into a coherent, evidence based strategy which will inform the MA sector in the future. Finally, and central to the development of the private sector, there has been good cooperation between MoC, MoH, MAFF, MIME and MEF in implementing the Service Level Agreement and in agreeing on the list of prohibited and restricted goods (JMI 12). Work is underway on streamlining the list and uploading it into the ASYCUDA system but no progress was made on assessing licensing impacts on SMEs.

NSDP Infrastructure Sector Priorities

Maintenance of national roads in Cambodia has been considered an important priority and the Ministry of Public Works and Transportation has produced a number of guidelines on road maintenance (JMI 13). The challenge ahead is to ensure implementation of the guidelines while the Ministry is also establishing mechanisms to control the overload problem. Regarding rural water supply and sanitation, the Ministry of Rural Development reports making good progress in its efforts to: i) increase improved water supply services for 50% of rural population and adequate sanitation services for 30% of rural population by 2015 in CMDG target; and ii) to increase improved water supply services for 40 % of rural people and adequate sanitation services for 20 % of rural population by 2011 (JMI 14).

NSDP Governance and Cross-Sectoral Priorities

With regard to public administration reform (JMI 15), the initiative to phase out salary supplementation practices was taken forward by introducing three mechanisms: the Special Operating Agencies (SOA), Priority Mission Group (PMG), and the Merit Based Pay Incentives (MBPI). The core elements of a remuneration strategy are also in place and are being implemented. These include an annual increase of 20% in the base salary; the continuation of functional allowance (management, education, and health); the deployment of MBPI and PMG; modernization of the pension system; and the introduction of health insurance. As a step towards developing a redeployment policy, a study on best practices has recently been completed. The implementation of both remuneration strategy and redeployment policy will critically depend on the coherence of the various state institutions and the sustainability of fiscal resources.

With regard to other major reform programmes, progress in the legal and judicial sector was mixed but progress was recorded to ensure the adoption and promulgation of the Criminal Procedure Code (JMI 16).  The Civil Code and Civil Procedures Code were also completed and promulgated during this period but issues of consistency between these codes and emerging legislations from other sectors remains. The Criminal Code is now at the Inter-Ministerial Meeting but the Law on the Statute of Judges & Prosecutors, the Law on the Organization and Functioning of the Court and the amendment to the Law on the Supreme Council of Magistracy all failed to significantly progress over the period. The approval of the Anti-Corruption Law (JMI 17) is expected to proceed after the passing of the Criminal Code.

The “Law on Administrative Management of Capital, Provinces, Municipalities, Districts and Khans,” was promulgated in May 2008 (JMI 18), providing the basis for reassigning a wider range of functional roles across government, and work commenced in early September 2008 on the National Program for Sub National Democratic Development. This reform is complementary to the Public Financial Management reform (JMI 19), which continued to progress satisfactorily as preparations for Platform 2 continue. The final JMI was broadly successful in its implementation as the Sub-decree on the administrative decision on domestic violence has been drafted by the Ministry of Interior and the Law on Anti Trafficking, in compliance with the UN Palermo Protocol was passed in 2007 (JMI 20). The National Action Plan to Combat Violence against Women has been prepared and now is under discussion at the Council for Ministers prior to the creation of a working group in MoI/DOLA.

Summary of JMI implementation status

Based on the text provided above, Table Eleven offers a snapshot view of all twenty JMIs and the progress recorded in their implementation. Further elaboration is provided in Annex Five.

Table Eleven.  Summary of JMI implementation status


Action Needed

Summary Progress

Implementation and Management of the National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP)

1. Approve final Ministry of Planning Strategic Plan

1. Approve final MPSP to be implemented with coordinated EDP support
2. Bring together the NSDP APR and the alignment section of the CDC AER

Plan approved, on-going dialogue
Partially completed, on-going

2. Aid effectiveness priorities implemented and monitored

1. DPs share info with CDC on new projects, including via ODA Database
2. Progress in implementing H-A-R Action Plan and TWG Guideline reported to GDCC
3. Managing for Results. The H-A-R Action Plan is augmented with a set of indicators

1. Good progress, on-going
2. Target met
3. Target met

NSDP Social Sector Priorities

3. Improve opportunities for primary education

1. Increase the net enrollment in primary school (total, and by gender).
2. Increase the survival rate from grade 1 to 6.

Both rates recorded improvement

4. Increase the proportion of deliveries attended by skilled health personnel

1. Recruitment and deployment of at least 68 midwives for 68 health centres that do not yet have any midwife by the end of 2007

2. Provide salary incentives to midwives.

Both targets met or exceeded

5. Enhance response to HIV/AIDS pandemic

Increase coverage of effective drug & HIV/AIDS prevention, comprehensive care and support, and effective mitigations interventions.

Target met

6. Food security and nutrition in sector strategies

Under RGC leadership, a Strategic Framework to mainstream food security and nutrition is developed by TWG-FSN and endorsed by relevant ministries.

Strategic Framework completed in early 2008, being disseminated

NSDP Economic Sector Priorities

7. Partnerships for- agriculture and water

1. Implementation of the Strategy for Agriculture and Water, as required by the NSDP.
2. Improved donor and government coordination

1. To be completed by end-2008
2. Sucessful and on-going

8. Implement Land Law

1. To adopt RGC's Policy on Registration and Use Rights of Indigenous Communal Land and pilot interim protective measures as per Sub-Decree #118.

2. 500 eligible households are settled on social land concessions with livelihood support and at least 10,000 hectares of suitable land confirmed for SLCs

1. On-going, partially met
2. On-going, partially met

9. Implement Forestry Law and ELC Sub-Decree

1. Implement ELC sub-decree: publish ELC log book, and review > 5 ELCs over 10,000 ha
2. Forest demarcation in accordance with the sub-decree No. 53, dated 1 April 2005.

1. Partially met (data for 6 provs)
2. 17 areas demarcated

10. Fisheries sector priorities implemented

1. Cambodian Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CamCode) drafted
2. Ensure the FiA is adequately funded to carry out its mandate (Article 14 Fisheries Law)
3. Donors use planning, accounting and monitoring systems of the FiA by end 2007.

1. Draft complete, circulated
2. FiA not fully funded
3. Few DPs use the system

11. Reduction of landmine casualties and a decrease contaminated land

1. Ensure implementation & monitoring of existing policy, strategy, and action plans.
2. Ensure timely disbursement of RGC and development partner funds.
3. Improve monitoring of resource use transparency.

1. Target met
2. Target met
3. Target met

12. Enabling environment for private sector development

1. MOC, MoH, MAFF, MIME and MEF to sign/implement the Service Level Agreements, attaching agreed–upon lists of prohibited goods between trade related agencies.

2. Review (by Sub-Steering Committee on Trade Development) of implementation of risk management to reduce the inspection rate to 50% including in SEZ’s.

3. Make specific recommendations on 20 priority licenses impacting on SMEs.

1. Ongoing
2. Partially met, ongoing
3. No progress

NSDP Infrastructure Sector Priorities

13. Sustainability of the Road Network

1. Develop Action Plans for Road Network Maintenance Management by June 2008.
2. Implement (i) 3 pilot road maintenance contracts and (ii) Overload Control Programs.

1. Guidelines in place, no plans
2. (i) ongoing (ii) small progress

14. Improved wat-san, esp in rural areas

Develop and adopt a rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) strategy and budget that is based on the official RWSS policy and aligned to the NSDP.

Ongoing, good progress

NSDP Governance and Cross-Sectoral Priorities

15. Public Administration Reform

1. Implement "Joint Government-Donor Strategy for Phasing Out Salary Supplementation"
2. Improve pay and employment conditions in the civil service.
3. Design and implement an HRM policy/action plan, HRMIS for the Civil Service.
4. Develop One Window Offices (OWOs) policy, legal framework and implementation plan

1. New Anukret 29 in place
2. Core elements in place
3. Available for consultation
4. Ongoing. MoI now leading

16. Legal and judicial reform

1. LJRS Strategic Objective 2. Penal Procedure Code, Penal Code, Civil Code, Law on the Statute of the Judges, Law on Court Organization and Functioning, Law on the Amendment of the Law on the Organization and Functioning of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy.
2. LJRS Strategic Objectives 2 & 7. Review and finalise guidelines for the legislative drafting process that draws on lessons from past experience.
3. LJRS Strategic Objectives 7 & 4. Ongoing training and transparent selection of judicial professionals to improve the supply of judicial services and the functioning of the courts.

1. Criminal Procedure, Civil Code, Civil Procedures Code passed. Others pending

2. Pending, expected to be addressed as priority in new Govt

3. On-going progress

17. Combat corruption

1. Finalize and approve Anti-Corruption Law, based on best international practices.
2. Prepare implementation plan to enforce and manage the Anti-Corruption Law.
3. Disseminate semiannual information on reported cases on corruption and conviction
4. Develop a clear policy framework on Access to Information.

1. To follow penal code. RS II indicates support to dissemination and access to information

18. Strategic Framework for D&D reforms.

1. Continue preparation of the organic laws on democratic development
2. National programme design process and modalities developed, agreed, and resourced
3. RGC and DPs design the principles of engagement in support of D&D reform

1. Completed
2. Ongoing into 2009
3. Awaiting national programme

19. Improved budgeting and accountability

a) sustain and complete PFMRP Platform 1; b) preparing Platform 2; c) prepare CAP and consider EITI; and d) continue monitoring impact through agreed Indicators.

a) complete, b) ongoing, c) ongoing, d) on track

20. Adopt/implement laws/ plans against violence and exploitation against women and children

1. Sub-decree on the administrative decision on domestic violence adopted.
2. Law on suppression of human trafficking and sexual exploitation adopted
3. National Action plan to combat violence against women implemented.
4. Policy and legislation on migration reviewed.

1. Submitted for adoption
2. Law passed
3. Tabled for discussion at CoM
4. Review conducted


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