The Joint Monitoring Indicators (JMIs) have been initiated and utilized since 2004 by the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) as an effective instrument to enhance mutual accountability between the RGC and its development partners. JMIs are used to guide activities that promote development results and mutual accountability and construct a framework for setting medium-term goals that have been prioritised in the Rectangular Strategy – Phase IV, National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP), Cambodia Sustainable Development Goals (CSDGs), sector/ thematic/reform strategy and Budget Strategic Plan (BSP). Based on dialogue between the RGC and its development partners in the Technical Working Groups (TWGs), JMIs are, where possible, derived from the NSDP and sector policies/plans and their associated result frameworks but should become increasingly embedded in programming and budgeting dialogues as well as in the performance-informed budgeting process. As the PFM reform progresses and program budgeting becomes more result-based, there is an opportunity to further strengthen the JMI mechanism by linking it closely to the budget process.
The current set of JMIs identifies development outcomes, outputs, indicators, baselines, and targets for the period 2014-2018. Following the formal launch of the Rectangular Strategy – Phase IV, the Development Cooperation and Partnerships Strategy (DCPS) 2019-2023 acknowledges the need to review and update JMIs for 2019-2023. The revision of JMIs will (i) ensure mutual accountability between the RGC and its development partners; (ii) strengthen results-based development; and (iii) link the JMIs more closely to the budget process.
To support the forthcoming JMI revision exercise, this Guideline sets out the objectives and principles of the JMIs together with the process for JMI formulation.
Objectives of the Joint Monitoring Indicators
JMIs must be results-based in order to establish a closer relationship between: (i) desired development outcomes (e.g. as defined in the NSDP, BSP/programme budgeting or sector strategy); (ii) outputs (i.e. the verifiable product of an activity); and (iii) activities and resources (to integrate external finance into the budget process where applicable). The objectives of the JMIs are as follows:
- To jointly agree on realistic and achievable targets for achieving priority development outcomes and reform goals as outlined in RGC’s policy documents (principally the Rectangular Strategy – Phase IV and the NSDP) and in line with sector/thematic plans;
- To create consensus around the activities to be undertaken (and responsible parties), the resources to be mobilised, the timeframe for implementation and the respective commitments of RGC, development partners and relevant stakeholders to achieving the targets;
- To foster and promote joint efforts to achieve development goals in a results-based manner informed by the principles of partnership and mutual accountability;
- To further support the integration of external finance into sector plan and budget strategic plan so that progress can be assessed through performance-informed budgeting process.
Principles for Joint Monitoring Indicator formulation and monitoring
- JMIs should be of a strategic nature linked to the achievement of 5-year development outcomes included in the Rectangular Strategy – Phase IV, the NSDP or respective sector policies/plans. JMIs should therefore, to the fullest extent possible, be derived from existing RGC results frameworks associated with national or sectoral/thematic policies, strategies and workplans. This will ensure effective ownership and leadership of the Royal Government.
- JMIs should identify a 5-year development outcome and associated 1-3 year monitorable outputs and output indicators (with baseline and target) linked to this outcome. In addition,JMIs must be associated with identified activities and partnership actions required. JMIs should be SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timebound. Responsibilities for implementation are to be clearly associated with each activity.
- To ensure coherence between planning and budgeting, JMIs agreed activities, outputs and outcome should be closely linked to the 3 years rolling BSP/programme budgeting. Specific baselines/targets/indicators may be derived from routine data systems and/or the NSDP or CSDG monitoring frameworks.
- JMIs are to be identified, monitored and revised where required, in the TWG. This will ensure that the principles of partnership and mutual accountability are fully respected and translated into actions. Associated actions and responsibilities to promote partnership and development effectiveness may also be included in the JMI matrix as means to further promote mutual accountability for achieving results.
- Each TWG is encouraged to select only one JMI outcome where possible, although additional JMI outcomes may be added where the TWG members agree that this is appropriate. Similarly, TWGs are encouraged to identify no more than 3 outputs to be monitored as making a contribution to the identified outcome.
- The focus of the JMIs is to be placed on the output (and its respective indicator, baseline and target) as this is the point in the results chain for which the RGC and its development partners can most practically be held mutually accountable for their performance.
- A JMI Progress Report will be prepared and discussed at the TWG meeting where implementation progress and challenges may be discussed.
- CRDB/CDC will prepare a consolidated Progress Report of JMIs to be included in the Development Cooperation and Partnerships Report (to serve as the DCPS annual progress report).